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About Armenia

An entry visa is required (except for the citizens of CIS countries). You can obtain a visa in the Armenian consulates abroad, upon arrival in the airport or on-line.

Dry continental with all seasons of the year. The average temperature in July + 35C and -5C in January. Armenia is a sunny country with 333 sunny days during the year.

Armenia is situated in the South Caucasus region with the territory of 29,8 thousands square km on the elevation of 1000 – 2500 m above sea level. The highest peak is Mount Aragats (4090m). Capital Yerevan Time zone - GMT + 4

Armenian dram (AMD) is official currency in Armenia 1000, 2000, 5000, 20000, 50000 and 100000 dram notes and 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 coins are used. Foreign currency can be freely converted in many exchange points and banks without any limitations. No commission is charged.

Armenian is the state language. Russian and English are widely spoken.

Many direct flights to Armenia are performed by AirFrance, Transavia, Austrian Airlines, Lufthansa,
 Agean airlines, Brussels Airlines, Air Arabia, Qatar airways, LOT, WizzAir, Condor, AirCairo, FlyOne, FlyArna, Armenian airlines, Armenia Airways, Shirak Avia, Pegasus Airlines, Aeroflot,  Red Wings, Qeshm Air, Sepehran Airlines,  Fly Dubai, Air Arabia, Belavia,UTAir, Middle East Airlines, Georgian Airlines, etc. Public transportation of Armenia includes buses, trolleybuses, taxis and mini buses. Metro in Yerevan operates from 6:30-23:30.

Armenia’s Calling Code – +374. Yerevan City Code-10

The vast majority of population in Armenia is Christian.

History of Armenia 
...On his descent from Ararat, Noah first stepped onto the land now known to the world as the country of Armenia, the country of talking stones...

The Armenian nation is one of the most ancient nations of the world. Armenian highland is a geographical region where the Armenian people were formed as a nation and lived over centuries to the present day, thus creating a vast and rich heritage of unique history and culture for over three millennia. It comes from the depth of centuries when the nations of ancient antiquity – Romans and Hellenes – were just born.

Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as official state religion in 301 A.D.

Nowadays Armenia is a small, mountainous country located in the southern Caucasus between the Black and the Caspian seas. About the size of Belgium, Armenia has varied topology including a large mountain lake (Sevan), ski areas, gorges, canyons, valleys, and mountain passes, which resemble the Swiss Alps. For its alpine meadows, pomegranate groves, snow-covered mountain peaks, colourful subtropical regions, and sun-filled arid valleys, it has been called a "paradise for artists". For most countries Armenia is considered an off-the-beaten-path destination and usually surprises tourists with its originality and uniqueness.

The Armenians call themselves “Hay”, and their country “Hayastan”.

The country Hayasa with the nation of the same name are mentioned on a clay Hittite list found during the excavation of the capital of the Hittite State related to the II millennium B.C. In I millennium B.C. the Assyrian cuneiforms refers to the Armeniam Statehood with the name of Urartu which encircled the whole territory of the extensive Armenian plateau. The State of Urartu (9-6 centuries B.C.) reached high level of civilization and left rich cultural heritage. Just by this concerns the construction of Erebuni fortress (782 B.C.) one of the outposts of ancient kingdom which gave name to the modern capital of Armenia – Yerevan. After the fall of Urartian Kingdom, the Armenian Statehood headed by the dynasty of Ervandunis, which afterwards came under the rule of Achaemenid Persia. As a result of Alexander Macedonian's conquests in IV century B.C., Armenia became a part of the united Hellenistic world, having restored its independance. In II century B.C. a strong local ruler Artashes King of Armenia united the lands of the Great and Minor Armenia, marking the dawn of a new royal dynasty of Artashesians. The Greek historian Strabo (I century B.C.) mentioned that the whole nation populated the Armenian plateau spoke one language – Armenian. The other ancient author Plutarchos names the capital of Armenia Artashat as the Carthago of Armenia and writes about the beauty and the glory of that city settled on the Silk way, which in ancient times served as a bridge between East and West.

The Great Armenia reached its height during the governing of Tigran the Great in I century B.C. Tigran's extensive empire reached from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean, from Tigris and Euphrates to the foothills of the Great Caucasus. The first centuries of new era passed in constant wars between Roman Empire and becoming strong Persian kingdom. The clash arena of two great states was Armenia which they divided between themselves in V century. But long before that, during the governing of the dynasty of Arshakunis which came to the throne in I century A.C., an important event took place in life of the Armenian nation determined all its following history. In 301 Armenia adopted Christianity as a state religion thus becoming the first Christian state in the world (Up till now Armenian people remained very religious nation fairly thinking that just the Christianity allowed to keep its ethnic originality). After hundred years another fate event took place in life of the Armenian nation. In 405 Mesrop Mashtots created the Armenian alphabet, which has faithfully served the Armenian nation ever since protecting it from foreign enslavement better than any weapon.

Armenia remained divided between Byzantium and Persia till the procession of the new religion Islam started. The creation of powerful Arabian caliphate became a historical reality, and many nations and rulers of ancient world had to reckon with it. But Armenians continued to struggle against Arabs and in XI century re-established their independence. Armenia of the epoch of Bagratunis reached its highest prosperity in X-XI centuries, with its capital Ani famous for its 1000 churches. Ani became one of the commercial centres of medieval. The invasion of the Seljuk Turks and faction resumed after weakening of caliphate between Byzantium and Persia, leaded Armenia to the loss of state independence and decline. In XIII century the Tatar-Mongolian invasion completed the destruction of the country. Escaping from enemy incursions and intrigues of Byzantine rulers on south-west coast of the Mediterranean Sea, Armenian princes managed to create there an independent princedom in XI century. In 1190 the emperor of Germany Frederick Red-Bearded admitted the existence of Armenian princedom. January 6, 1198 is the date of official declaration of Kilikian Kingdom. Levon from dynasty of Rubenians came to the throne of Kilikian Kingdom which existed till XIV century.

During three centuries the Armenian nation had an opportunity to develop its culture and science in relatively calm conditions. The last independent Armenian state serving as an outpost of Christianity in times of crusades was broken by Egyptian Mamelukes.

The darkest times came to the centuries-old history of the Armenian nation with the appearance of Turk-Ottomans, who smashed Byzantine Empire and captured its whole territory. Over a period of XV-XVII centuries the territory of Armenia was an arena of constant wars between Ottoman Turkey and Persia. In 1639 they divided Armenia between themselves. The Turkish and Persian rule was a brake for the cultural development of Armenia and it set aside the life of the nation for a few centuries back. The Armenians managed to retain semi-independent principalities only in impregnable upland regions of Sunick and Artsakh (Karabagh). From XVII century Russia began campaigns to Caucasus. In 1828 as a result of Russian-Persian war Eastern Armenia was affiliated to Russia. The Armenian nation was on the edge of physical loss in Western Armenia, that remained under the rule of Turkey. Having the goal to concur finally the territory of Armenia, Turkish government executed its Anti-Armenian policy, which reached its culmination in the years of World War I. During 1915-1918 Turkish rulers realized the annihilation and deportation of the Armenian population of Western Armenia. The awful result of the Armenians' Genocide was the death of 1.5 million people. Most part of historical Armenia lost its aboriginal population.

In 1918 on the territory of Eastern Armenia an independent Armenian republic was proclaimed, where in November 1920 the Soviet rule was established. 21 September 1991 is the date of formation of the Republic of Armenia.